The internet of things (IoT) is a computing concept that describes the idea of everyday physical objects being connected to the internet and being able to identify themselves to other devices. The IoT is significant because an object that can represent itself digitally becomes something greater than the object by itself. No longer does the object relate just to its user, but is now connected to surrounding objects and database data.
IoT extends the Internet from most used devices like desktop and portable computers, Smartphone’s and tablets to various variants of devices and everyday things that utilize embedded technology to speak and act with the external surroundings, all via the internet. In 2005, the number of connected devices surpassed the human population. Hence, it is but natural that devices need to communicate with each other to bring value and improve life.
Connectivity empowers IoT by getting the everyday objects talk to each other. Anything can be interconnected to share information and the infrastructure can thus add it to the global information system.
The devices in IoT are based on different hardware platforms and networks and still interact with each other. This heterogenous system makes it possible for devices to not only talk to each other but share information with global system.
The state of the devices can change dynamically without any human interaction, e.g., sleeping and waking up, connected or disconnected, the location, the speed of movement. The context or environment of the device can change and hence the change in the state.
The sheer number of devices that are and will get connected is enormous. Managing these interconnected devices on the internet itself makes it quite challenging. The quantum of data generated by these interconnected devices is huge that needs to be managed and analyzed to get to the right information and take action.
To call a device a smart device, it has to have computational capabilities and algorithms to be able to adapt to the changes in the environment in which it resides. This helps the device to respond to the change effectively.
A device cannot take decision if it does not have a sensor to interact with real world to know the changes happening in the environment. Sensing technologies make it possible for the device to interact with the environment and take intelligent decisions.
The interconnected devices sharing information over internet makes it vulnerable to attacks. One of the critical aspects of the IoT is to ensure not only the data remains secure, but the devices too are secure from attacks, be it internal or external.
Not only devices, but data from different sources get connected to provide higher quality information for decision making. It also connects people more closely to IoT through smartphones, smart wearable devices etc.